Recent Posts by jesper_christensen

How do we make the “Smart Home” Smart?

How do we make the "Smart Home" Smart? Without blinking, we today tend to call a lot of products and concepts smart. The light bulb that can be controlled through an app is smart, the dish washer that notifies you when it’s done is smart and the door lock that you can open through Bluetooth…
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Blog: Cloud intelligence on the factory floor

Cloud intelligence on the factory floor In these years, Amazon, Apple, Google and Facebook are planning data centers all around Scandinavia. Here, the technology giants will process the growing data volumes that citizens and businesses generate on, for example, social media, television streaming and internet searches. But it's not just on the consumer side that…
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IS YOUR NEXT MEDICAL DEVICE AN EDGE DEVICE? Looking at the regulations and standards, that must be followed when designing a Medical Device, it may seem impossible to use Cloud Services and IoT for this. After all, IEC 62304, IEC 82304-1 and ISO 13485 are all very rigid when it comes to configuration management, version…
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News: Microsoft to push cloud to edge

In recent years, there has been a strong push to move everything to a centralized cloud, enabled by virtualization and driven by the need to cut costs, reduce the time to market for new services, and increase flexibility. In recent years fog computing have discussed how location impacts performance, efficient use of network resources and…
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Blog: Transform businesses with strategic SLAs

Transform businesses with strategic SLAs SLAs and business transformation in the same sentence – doesn’t sound right, does it? Well. There is, however, more to the matter if you look at SLAs (Service Level Agreements) through the lense of IoT business models. Many vendors see their SLA as a necessary evil as few of their…
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News: NB-IoT roll-out underway in Denmark

-Eight IoT standards you should know- Finally the long-awaited Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) network is ready for roll-out in Copenhagen to begin with, and soon other Danish cities. NB-IoT is the telecommunications companies' bid for wireless technology to be used for the Internet-of-Things (IoT) over long distances. In recent years, a fierce battle has been fought…
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Blog: Can the Smart Speaker Assistant revolutionize the Smart Home?

Can the Smart Speaker Assistant revolutionize the Smart Home? While the market for Smart Home products is booming, the mainstream adoption is struggling. The products and services providing real value to consumers are few in comparison to the onslaught of products made ‘smart’ just because “we made an app for it because we could”. The…
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Blog: Innovation Lab and then what? When the rubber meets the road

Innovation Lab and then what? When the rubber meets the road Sometime during the nineteen eighties at Philips R&D in Copenhagen a large development project had just been cancelled and the organisation subsequently had surplus of capacity – to put it nicely. There was an atmosphere of anxiety, while the upper management was trying negotiating…
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Blog: Autonomy and beyond: optimisation and new business

Autonomy and beyond: optimisation and new business -Click for facts about positioning technologies- Moving items to and from a storage facility can be done by tracking every item itself: Attach and fix a tracking device, i.e. an Active RFID tag, and it will report its position when moved, saving battery by only transmitting when in…
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Blog: On the path towards autonomous vehicles

On the path towards autonomous vehicles -Click for reading part II- Most new web services are deployed from a Mobile First philosophy. Everything is connected, everything is mobile, but where is everything? Put a note in your calendar to remember something, not when, but where you are to do the thing. Wireless communication is perfect…
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Positioning technologies currently applied across industries:

Global Navigational Satellite System: Outdoor positioning requires line-of-sight to satellites, e.g. GPS: the tracking device calculates its position from 4 satellites’ timing signals then transmits to receiving network
–    via local data network, e.g. wifi, proprietary Wide Area Network
–    via public/global data network, e.g. 3G/4G

Active RFID: A local wireless positioning infrastructure built on premises indoor or outdoor calculates the position based on Time of Flight from emitted signal & ID from the tracking device to at least 3 receivers or when passing through a portal. The network is operating in frequency areas such as 2.4 GHz WiFi, 868 MHz, 3.7 GHz (UWB – Ultra Wide Band), the former integrating with existing data network, the latter promising an impressive 0.3 m accuracy. Tracking devices are battery powered.

Passive RFID: Proximity tracking devices are passive tags detected and identified by a reader within close range. Example: Price tags with built-in RFID will set off an alarm if leaving the store. Numerous proprietary systems are on the market. NFC (Near Field Communications) signifies a system where the reader performs the identification by almost touching the tag.

Beacons: Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) signals sent from a fixed position to a mobile device, which then roughly calculates its proximity based on the fading of the signal strength. For robotic vacuum cleaners an infrared light beacon can be used to guide the vehicle towards the charging station.

Dead Reckoning: Measure via incremental counting of driving wheels’ rotation and steering wheel’s angle. Small variations in sizes of wheel or slip of the surface may introduce an accumulated error, hence this method is often combined with other systems for obtaining an exact re-positioning reset.

Scan and draw map: Laser beam reflections are measured and used for calculating the perimeter of a room and objects. Used for instance when positioning fork-lifts in storage facilities.

Visual recognition: The most advanced degree of vision is required in fully autonomous vehicles using Laser/Radar (Lidar) for recognition of all kinds of object and obstructions. A much simpler method can be used for calculating a position indoor tracking printed 2D barcodes placed at regular intervals in a matrix across the ceiling. An upwards facing camera identifies each pattern and the skewed projection of the viewed angle.

Inertia: A relative movement detection likewise classical gyroscopes in aircrafts now miniaturised to be contained on a chip. From a known starting position and velocity this method measures acceleration as well as rotation in all 3 dimensions which describes any change in movement.

Magnetic field: a digital compass (on chip) can identify the orientation provided no other magnetic signals are causing distortion.

Mix and Improve: Multiple of the listed technologies supplement each other, well-proven or novel, each contributing to precision and robustness of the system. Set a fixpoint via portals or a visual reference to reset dead reckoning & relative movement; supplement satellite signal with known fixpoint: “real time kinematics” refines GPS accuracy to mere centimetres; combine Dead Reckoning and visual recognition of 2D barcodes in the ceiling.

LoRaWAN: A low power wide area network with wide reach. An open standard that runs at unlicensed frequencies, where you establish a network with gateways.

Sigfox: A low power wide area network reminiscent of LoRa. Offered in Denmark by IoT Danmark, which operates the nationwide network that integrates seamlessly to other national Sigfox networks in the world.

NFC: Used especially for wireless cash payments.

Zigbee: Used especially for home automation in smart homes, for example. lighting control.

NB-IoT: Telecommunications companies’ IoT standard. A low-frequency version of the LTE network.

2-3-4G Network: Millions of devices are connected to a small SIM card, which runs primarily over 2G, but also 3G and 4G.

Wifi: The most established standard, especially used for short-range networks, for example. in production facilities.

CATM1: A low power wide area network, especially used in the United States.